By Norman Lieberman, Elizabeth Lieberman
The most modern tools for troubleshooting and protecting strategy equipment
Applicable to a large variety of technicians and industries and entirely up to date all through, A operating consultant to strategy Equipment, Fourth version, explains how you can diagnose, troubleshoot, and proper issues of chemical and petroleum refining method gear. 9 new chapters hide:
- Tray layout information
- Shell-and-tube warmth exchanger layout info
- Relief valve approach layout
- Vapor lock and exchanger flooding in steam structures
- Steam new release working and layout information
- Wastewater strippers
- Thermodynamics -- the way it applies to procedure apparatus
- Centrifugal pumps -- lowering seal and bearing disasters
- Hand calculations for distillation towers
- Vapor -- liquid equilibrium, absorption, and stripping calculations
Filled with examples and illustrations, this functional source demonstrates how concept applies to fixing real-world plant operation difficulties. chosen hand calculation equipment also are provided.
Comprehensive insurance includes:
Distillation Tower Trays * Tower strain keep watch over * Distillation Towers * Reboilers * Tower Internals * tools * Packed Towers * Steam and Condensate structures * Bubble element and Dew aspect * Steam Strippers * Draw-Off Nozzle Hydraulics * Pumparounds and Tower warmth Flows * Condensers and Tower strain keep watch over * Air Coolers * Deaerators and Steam structures * Steam iteration * Wastewater Strippers * Vacuum platforms * Steam generators * floor Condensers * Shell-and-Tube warmth Exchangers * Fired warmers * Refrigeration platforms * Cooling Water structures * Catalytic results * Centrifugal Pumps * keep an eye on Valves * Separators * Centrifugal Compressors and Surge * Reciprocating Compressors * Corrosion * Fluid circulation in Pipes * Super-Fractionation degree * machine keep watch over * box Troubleshooting
Read or Download A Working Guide to Process Equipment, Fourth Edition (Mechanical Engineering) PDF
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Extra info for A Working Guide to Process Equipment, Fourth Edition (Mechanical Engineering)
3 is 100 percent. The efficiency of the tray in Fig. 4 is 0 percent. How about the 10 trays shown in Fig. 5? Calculate their average efficiency (the answer is 10 percent). As the vapor temperature rising from the top tray equals the liquid temperature draining from the bottom tray, the 10 trays are behaving as a single perfect tray with 100-percent efficiency. But as there are 10 trays, each tray, on average, acts like one-tenth of a perfect tray. 3 Hundred-percent tray efficiency. 4 Zero-percent tray efficiency.
They are called reed tachometers. Dynamic machine Centrifugal pumps and centrifugal compressors are dynamic machines. They convert velocity imparted by the impeller to the fluid into fluid pressure. Positive displacement machine A reciprocating compressor or gear type pump is an example of a positive displacement machine. It increases pressure by squeezing or pushing the fluid into a region of greater pressure. Turbine A turbine uses steam pressure or burning gas to drive pumps and compressors at variable speeds.
The cause is loss of the downcomer seal. The height of the outlet weir is below the bottom edge of the downcomer from the tray above. This permits vapor to flow up downcomer B. The up-flowing vapor displaces the downflowing liquid. That is, the vapor pushes the liquid up onto the tray above—which is a cause of flooding. On the other hand, Fig. 7 shows what happens if the bottom edge of the downcomer is too close to the tray below. The high pressure drop needed for the liquid to escape from downcomer B onto tray deck 1 causes the liquid level in downcomer B to back up onto tray deck 2.